Vladimir Putin stated that “Artificial intelligence is the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind. It comes with colossal opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to predict. Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world”. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the mimicry of human intellect in computers that have been designed to carry out operations like speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation that traditionally need human intelligence. Machine learning, natural language processing, and other cutting-edge technologies are all part of the rapidly expanding field of artificial intelligence (AI). In modern warfare, AI is being used to increase the capabilities of military forces. This intelligence technology can quickly analyze huge amount of data, it can easily point out all the data patterns, and it can give predictions on which armed forces can make decisions. AI can be used, for instance, to evaluate satellite imagery and spot potential dangers on the battlefield. AI may be used to create autonomous weapons systems like drones and robots that can function without human supervision.
Nearly every nation on earth has embraced artificial intelligence due to its growing application. Pakistan and India are in a similar situation. This article will provide a thorough explanation of how the two countries are compared in reference to artificial intelligence. Looking at the India’s capabilities, she has invested a lot in AI sector which has also boosted her economy.
According to a story by The Times of India, which cited senior defence sources, India’s defence forces are now “increasingly focusing” on deploying artificial intelligence (AI) in the military to facilitate quicker decision-making and reduce the sensor-to-shooter loop. According to reports, the Indian Army, Air Force, Navy, and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) are taking measures to make sure AI is employed effectively in conflict prevention.
The Defence Artificial Intelligence Council (DAIC), chaired by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh, was recently established in the Asian nation to offer general direction and support for initiatives incorporating cutting-edge technologies. Singh has previously stated that by 2024, India would create 25 AI products tailored specifically for the defence industry.
The Military AI Project Agency (DAIPA), which has a $13.2 million ($13.2 million) annual budget, was also established by India. 30 AI projects are apparently in the works for the Indian Navy, with an emphasis on enhanced decision-making, autonomous systems, border security, and maritime domain awareness. The creation of autonomous systems, such as ground vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), is one of India’s primary research topics for AI in the military. India has been working on a variety of drones for military uses, such as combat, surveillance, and reconnaissance. For instance, the T-Hawk, a small, lightweight UAV that can be used for surveillance and reconnaissance in challenging terrain, has been tested by the Indian Army.
India is also making investments in the creation of AI-driven systems for applications related to intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). Large volumes of data, including satellite photography, can be analysed by these systems to spot trends and potential dangers.
India is using several AI systems for the defence purpose. Some of them are listed below;
Integrated Battlefield Management System (IBMS): An AI-powered technology called IBMS gives commanders on the battlefield real-time situational awareness. The system combines information from several sources, including sensors, satellites, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), to create a comprehensive image of the battlefield. IBMS is made to facilitate quicker response times and better decision-making.
Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C): An AI-powered system called the Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) alerts users to potential hazards such as enemy aircraft and missiles in advance. Target detection and tracking are performed by the system using a combination of radar and AI algorithms. The Indian Air Force uses AEW&C to improve its air defence capabilities.
Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs): India has created a number of UGVs for use in military surveillance and reconnaissance. These unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are outfitted with AI-powered systems that let them negotiate challenging terrain and identify potential hazards. Indian-made UGVs include the Daksh bomb-disposal vehicle and the Abhay reconnaissance vehicle, for instance.
Cyber Security: India is making investments in the creation of AI-driven cybersecurity solutions. For instance, to identify and address cyber threats, the nation’s National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) employs AI algorithms. The NCIIPC is also working on a system that uses AI to anticipate cyberattacks and spot holes in key infrastructure.
These are some examples showing the success stories of India in AI sector. In contrast with it, Pakistan is lagging behind India in AI technology due to multiple reasons which will be discussed later. However, Pakistan has been putting more money into artificial intelligence technology for use in the military. The military of the nation has been updating its gear and arsenal, and AI has become a crucial component of this modernization process.
To focus on AI and other cutting-edge technologies, the Pakistani military has set up research and development facilities. The National Centre for Artificial Intelligence (NCAI), for instance, was founded in 2018 to advance national AI research and development. For a variety of military applications, including automated threat identification, decision-making, and logistics management, the centre has been focused on developing AI-based solutions. The military of Pakistan has also implemented AI in its drone programmes.
The nation has created its own drone technology, including the Burraq drone, which was employed for military operations in the country’s northwest region. According to reports, the drone employed AI to find targets and give operators up-to-the-minute situational awareness.
In order to defend its military and other national assets from cyberthreats, Pakistan has also been investigating the use of AI in cybersecurity. The Information Warfare Wing was established by the nation’s military in 2019 to combat cyber threats and improve its cybersecurity posture. According to media sources, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) has started a Cognitive Electronic Warfare (CEW) programme at its Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Computation (CENTAIC).
In order to improve the creation and usage of Electronic Warfare (EW) technologies for the military sector, cognitive systems—commonly referred to as Artificial Intelligence (AI) or machine learning—are used in what is known as Cognitive Electronic Warfare (CEW). Next-generation EW threat identification, suppression, and neutralisation technologies are being developed and implemented more quickly thanks to cognitive systems’ ability to sense, learn, reason, and interact organically with people and their surroundings.
When using AI in modern warfare, Pakistan must overcome a number of obstacles, some of which are as follows:
Restricted resources: AI adoption in modern combat necessitates considerable investments in research & development, hiring new talent, and computer infrastructure. Pakistan is a developing nation with limited resources.
Lack of knowledge: Pakistan may struggle to find specialists in artificial intelligence (AI) and related disciplines including machine learning, computer vision, and natural language processing. Because of this, creating and implementing AI-based solutions for military applications might be difficult.
Data quality and quantity: To train and boost the accuracy of AI models, a lot of data is needed. It might be difficult for Pakistan to acquire reliable data for military applications, and there might only be a small amount of data available for some uses.
New cybersecurity challenges are brought about by the employment of AI in contemporary combat. To safeguard its military and other national assets from online threats, Pakistan may need to establish effective cybersecurity measures.
Using AI in modern combat creates ethical and legal challenges, such as the possibility of AI systems making discriminating or prejudiced judgements. To regulate the creation and implementation of AI in military applications, Pakistan may need to create ethical and legal frameworks.
International laws: International laws, like as the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, apply to the use of AI in modern combat. Pakistan may need to abide by these rules and make sure that its use of AI for military purposes adheres to accepted international standards.
If both countries are compared, India is at advantage because of larger talent pool, economy and more resources. At the other hand, Pakistan has less talent pool and economic resources than India. In conclusion, India and Pakistan have both made investments in artificial intelligence technology for military uses, and their capacities in this area are growing. Pakistan is advancing in the development of its AI capabilities, even if India may have an advantage in terms of talent pool and resources.